Demonstrations denouncing the investigation and accountability
for the violations and assassinations committed against activists
The Iraqis, especially the youth and universities and institutes graduates, were looking forward to making progress in efforts towards addressing major challenges, the most important of which are the deteriorating economic conditions, decline in the level of services, demand for monthly student financial grants and because of the corruption in the university administration, the poor basic services in the student accommodations and the exacerbation of unemployment in addition to the hesitant reconstruction efforts.
The country is witnessing a decline in living standard due to the high unemployment, the absence of services and deterioration of infrastructure. On the other hand, there is no actual political participation, as there are no new personalities in the political process. What the youth receives of repression is political ignorance and mistrust on the part of some political parties through being enemies to them. Therefore, it seems that the Iraqi street is not free of manifestations of peaceful assemblies, which is a right guaranteed by the Iraqi constitution, including freedom of expression and peaceful demonstration, in a manner that does not affect the country's higher interests such as security and stability.
On 22\ November\ 2021, hundreds of lecturers who spent three years in teaching for free gathered demanding contracts on the Cabinet Resolution 315 contracts, similar to the rest of the contracts of government ministries, and there was media coverage by the Dijla satellite channel. A committee consisting of the Secretary of the Third Governor, the Media Director of the Babylon Police Command, and the independent representative, Yasser Askandar Watut, to resolve the issue, after which a letter was submitted to the General Secretariat requesting the transfer of the lecturers to Resolution 315.
Resolution No. 315 of 2019 of the council of ministers regarding procedures and contracts.
Contract privileges for lecturers:
1- Retirement guarantee
2- Right to withdraw a loan
3- Salaries according to the certificates
4- Granting leave according to the laws to the permanent public employees.
5- Right to complete studies
6- Right to apply for plots of land and pay for them in installments
7- Right to work in the private sector without conflicting with the time of the public job.
8- They have priority to become public permanent
9- Inclusion in training courses.
The demonstration ended by submitting a letter to the General Secretariat of the Council of Ministers requesting the transfer of the salary of 130 on the salary scale of resolution 315 through the progress of MP Iskandar Watut by contacting the Ministry of Education and the General Secretariat of the Council of Ministers to coordinate the addition of the paragraph on the transfer of the salaries of lecturers on the salary scale 315 and also came to them secretary of the third governor Hussein Husseini and wrote their demands on a paper and submitted it to the governor and then the Governor of Babel submitted a letter to the Ministry of Education requesting the inclusion of lecturers by resolution 315.
The demonstration of Babel
On 18\ November\2021, after a call made by the activist’s mother and head of Karbala City Protests Coordination (Ihab al-Wazzani), who was assassinated by unknown gunmen in front of his house in Karbala Governorate on 9th of May, 2021, for the families of the dead and the disappeared, who participated in the October 2019 demonstrations, to go out and gather in Baghdad governorate demanding to reveal the killers of their children and bring them to justice, as happened in the incident of a reporter and his escort on Dijla satellite channel (Ahmed Abdel Samad and Safaa Ghali), who was assassinated by unknown persons on the 10th From January 2021, they were arrested and sentenced to death in early November 2021. After the appeal made by the mother of the activist Ihab Al-Wazani, a number of families of the victims and the disappeared showed solidarity and the Impunity Organization adopted in a statement published on the organization’s website, the organization launched an initiative aimed to strengthen the rights of demands aimed at bringing justice to the families of the dead and the disappeared Iraqis participating in the October 2019 protests.
The gathering started with the attendance of dozens of families of the dead and the disappeared from all Iraqi governorates, with the participation of the Iraqi Students Union and a group of activists. Many families of the dead flocked to the square, including the mother of the demonstrator (Muhannad al-Qaisi
\ Najaf governorate \ who read the statement in the attached video), the mother of the demonstrator (Amjad Al-Dahamat \ Missan governorate), the sons of the demonstrator (Jaseb Al-Heliji, the father of the late Ali Gaseb, who was assassinated early this year after he was exposed Names related to the absence of his son, who died as a result by unknown persons who have not been revealed.
The demonstrator’s mother (Ehab Al-Wazani, who called for the gathering), the demonstrator’s mother
(Raymond Rayan, a Christian, a resident of Baghdad governorate)
The protester’s mother (Abdul Quddus \ Missan governorate) and a large group estimated at dozens. The gathering began in Tahrir Square and ended in the same place after raising the banners bearing slogans demanding the disclosure of the unknown killers, revealing the fate of the disappeared, as well as confessing and compensating the victims of the demonstrations. The demonstration lasted for nearly four hours and was covered by the Arab and Iraqi media channels and some meetings were held with the families of the victims to listen to their demands. During the rally, Tahrir Square did not witness any visit from any relevant government agency. The demands were read orally and were published on social media, and the adoption or approval of any government party concerned to receive or adopt the demands of the demonstrators during this gathering was not monitored or documented.
The most important demands were:
Where a hashtag was launched on the social networking sites #Mothers_of_Tahrir_Square for this gathering.
flocked to Tahrir Square
It also called on the Preparatory Committee for the demonstrations rejecting the results of the elections on 9th of November in Baghdad and the provinces to escalate and try to storm the Green Zone with the so-called #Friday_of_steadfastness, demanding that the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the caretaker Prime Minister Mustafa Al-Kazemi to be held accountable for the clashes that took place between the demonstrators and the Security forces in the Green Zone after the demonstrators tried to storm the heavily fortified Green Zone and refused to hand over weapons to the armed factions, following what was stated in Muqtada al-Sadr's last speech. Hundreds of masses rejecting the election results flocked from the side of the bridge after the security forces cut the Jumhuriya and Al-Sinak bridges with concrete barriers on 12\ November\ 2021 and also closed the gate leading to the Ministry of Planning in an attempt by the security forces to limit attempts to storm the Green Zone from Before the demonstration near the Ministry of Planning.
The demonstrations escalated after the speech of Muqtada al-Sadr, the leader of the Sadrist bloc, in which he called for respecting the results of the elections, dissolving the armed factions and handing over their weapons to the official authorities responsible for this. Announcing the results under the supervision of a judicial body of honest judges, in addition to refusing to hand over the weapons of the armed factions, as they represent the legitimate resistance in an occupied country (according to their point of view, which is one of the main reasons for rejecting the election results because the demonstrators represent the armed virtues that lost in the elections) and the sit-in had set up a platform In front of Gate No. 1 near the Ministry of Planning bearing a picture of the dead in early November, as well as a anthropomorphic hanging on the gallows of the caretaker prime minister, Mustafa Al-Kazemi, referring to demands for a trial. The demonstrators also chanted slogans denouncing America and the expired prime minister.
Demonstration of parties rejecting the electoral results
On 15\ November\ 2021, many farmers gathered in the northern areas of Al-Muthanna Governorate, specifically in Al-Najmi district in the center of the district, where dozens of farmers, estimated at about 40 farmers in the center of Al-Najmi district, in a demonstration to demand the provision of fair water shares for their areas, as the water distribution during the periods was not enough. It is noteworthy that desertification affected (39%) of the land in the country, and that the high level of salinity in the soil has become a threat to (54%) of the agricultural area. All of this is linked to the harm of farmers from Al- Najmi's residents and other areas north of Al-Muthanna Governorate, which led to their angry demonstration denouncing the unfair distribution of their water, which caused damage to more than 100 acres of land. Whereas the farmer "Salem Albu Ajaj" indicated that they have reached a stage where they do not have the food of their day because of the dryness of the trees in his agricultural land. Salem explains that if the situation continues like this, he may have to leave the area and be among the nomadic Bedouins just to earn his living, while Sheikh Amjad Al Ali indicated that this demonstration is the beginning of a
large protest, an open sit-in and an escalation soon in the event that their demands are not met, as they made it clear that their demands are very clear, which is the equitable distribution of water and the establishment of a fair schedule for bribery between the regions. Through the phone and social media for all those affected to participate in it, it must be clearly noted that this demonstration came after great frustration that affected them, as it was with the beginning of the current agricultural season. It was also noted very clearly the lack of the water share and the lack of a fair distribution of this share, especially for the northern areas of Al-Muthanna governorate, specifically the farmers of Al-Najmi district, and here it must be clarified that the intended water is “irrigation water”. From the Iranian side regarding water quotas. As for those who make any official statement from government agencies in this regard, and it is worth noting that the demonstrators appealed to the Prime Minister, Mustafa Al-Kazemi, to the Minister of Water Resources, and to the Governor of Muthanna, Mr. Ahmed Manfi Judeh, to intervene and solve their suffering.
is a demonstration by many farmers in the northern areas of Al-Muthanna Governorate
On the other hand, a demonstration and an open sit-in gathered to achieve the demands of the demonstrators of the Ministry of Electricity contracts in the Muthanna governorate, as it is an extension of the demonstrations of all the contracts of the Ministry of Electricity in various Iraqi governorates in addition to the center of Baghdad, where the demonstration started on the fifteenth of this month in front of the Samawah complex power station and the gas station and then extended with a sit-in that continued for the twentieth day, as all of them bear unified demands related to defining and approving their rights so that the 2019 and 2020 differences are released and salaries are returned to the old ladder because the crisis for which the peace was prepared ended as the demonstration organized the contracts of the Ministry of Electricity affiliated with the compound equality station and the gas station In the southeast of the province, where Ali al-Maliki, the representative of the demonstrators, indicated through an official video statement that the demands include in addition to the release of the payable differences and the return of salaries on the old ladder, in addition to the addition of spouses and children and the entitlements of overtime, as the additional hours they currently spend are not calculated and are not compensated About it in any amounts due to the new peace and the failure to use and apply the law correctly. Ali explained that the contracts in the Ministry of Electricity represent more than 70%, and this is a very large and important percentage, and it is necessary to pay attention to their demands and implement them. , It is important to mention that the demonstration included the participation of about
35 engineers and workers, while the scene turned into a strike on the 16th, the voices of the demonstrators began to escalate, which led to the intervention of the security forces and their expulsion by force, while there was no statement or a clear statement by the government authorities on the matter. On the other hand, the slogans raised were that the peaceful and civilized sit-in is the one who fulfills all the demands and returns all the stolen rights, the most important of which is the return of the old peace and the payment of contract dues.# Contract dues payable. And #electricity_contracts_are rising.
Demonstrators of the Ministry of Electricity contracts are demanding the release of the allowence differences and the return the previous employment system
On 8\ November\2021, dozens of the demonstrators of the city of Najaf went out in front of the building of the Burns Center located in the Missan neighborhood in the city of Najaf. This came as a call from the demonstration coordinators as a result of the attack that happened to the activist Karrar Al- Asadi, who was targeted at dawn on Thursday at 3:00 am in a residential area, which led to the burning of his car and severe burns to one of his relatives. In addition to other material damages made by unknown gangs. Karrar al-Asadi is one of the most prominent demonstrators and activists in Najaf. Al-Asadi stated in a video clip attributed to him and told the story of the incident of what happened to him and his nephew, where he said, “This incident is not a decree and destiny, this incident is an active act. As for the demonstrators, in turn, they expressed their anger and condemnation of this event. On the other hand, there was a great interaction of the demonstrators in Najaf and other Iraqi governorates on social networking sites for the events and attacks against activists in the city of Najaf, including the activist and protester Muhammad al-Amidi being beaten by an unknown party in Kufa on police watch, and they did nothing on the same day, November 18. This is what was stated by Ali The personal page on Facebook, as well as the incident of activist Adel Abu Iraq, an attempt to kidnap a daughter because of these attacks, where they demanded investigation in the smallest details and presenting the results of the investigation to public opinion as soon as possible, as well as imposing security and safety stolen from Najaf Governorate.
On 20\November\2021, dozens of demonstrators, due to the events and repeated attacks on demonstrators in Al-Sadreen Square, went out to the building of the Najaf Police Command Center in a protest, in which they demanded the disclosure and accountability of all those involved in these events and repeated attacks, and their demands were to provide security and safety for the governorate. The security leaders expressed their negligence, as they gave the security leadership 24 hours, as the party that did this criminal act was not revealed. We will take further steps in the coming days.
Pictures showing the assault on the activist Karrar Al-Asadi
On 2\ November\2021, dozens of demonstrators went out in the district of Chabayish, where they gathered on the main road leading to the center of Dhi Qar governorate, blocking the road by burning tires in a protest for their refusal to assign a new mayor by the central government in Baghdad in a surprising way.
On the other hand, eyewitnesses confirmed that dozens of demonstrators from the Chabayish district burned tires in front of the district administrative building and prevented the movement of vehicles in both directions, after a Diwaniya order was issued to make administrative changes in the judiciary assigning Dia Ghali to occupy the position of mayor, succeeding the former mayor Kifah Shinawa, who was assigned an order The governor of Dhi Qar on the fifteenth of last June, calling on the local government to stop the implementation of the commissioning order and to continue the work of the former governor, who is chosen by the residents of the district.
After two hours of blocking the entire road, a security force approached them to negotiate peacefully to open the road after one of the officers called the police chief in the province, Saad Harbiye, and the governor, Dr. Ahmed Al-Khafaji, and promised the demonstrators that the local government would address the Baghdad government represented by Prime Minister Mustafa Al-Kazemi for the return of the former mayor of Al-Jbayish and the cancellation of The new order led the demonstrators to put out the fire, open the road again, and withdraw from the place.
A protest in Dhi Qar governorate for their refusal to assign a new mayor by the central government in Baghdad
Qadisiyah \ November
On 11\17\2021 hundreds of Diwaniyah lecturers organized a protest in front of the Diwaniyah Education Director’s building, demanding to be included in Resolution “315” for the year “2019” like the rest of the ministries. Dozens of Diwaniyah lecturers went out in the morning in front of the Diwaniyah Education Directorate building, and then this group went to the Diwaniyah Governorate building to demand the local government in the governorate to send the official requests concerning the financial costs of the 33,000 Diwaniyah lecturers to each of the "Council of Diwaniyah" Ministers and the Ministry of Finance.
The Diwaniyah lecturers also expressed in an interview with them in the event that the local government represented by “Zuhair Al-Shaalan, Governor of Diwaniyah” did not respond by submitting the official letter to the central government in Baghdad, announcing that they would go out in a public strike until their demands were achieved. Regarding how the demonstration started, it was mentioned in the introduction to the report the time of the demonstration, the place of the demonstration and the reasons for the demonstration, in answering the second comment regarding the official responses of the government, yes the response was fulfilled, as the Council of Ministers decided in its regular session the session number (forty-fifth) on November 22, 2021) By approving the inclusion of lecturers, administrators and volunteering workers in the Ministry of Education who began providing their free services on 1\5\2020 or before that date mentioned in Cabinet Resolution (130 for the year 2021) with the wages approved in Cabinet Resolution (315 of 2019) amended by Resolution (337 of 2019) provided that the necessary financial allocations are available within the Federal General Budget Law for the fiscal year 2022.
A protest by Diwaniyah lecturers in front of the building of the of Diwaniyah Directorate of Education
On 8\November\2021, more than thirty people from the families of the victims of the popular protests that had previously witnessed Karbala gathered. Among the most prominent of them is the mother of the activist Ehab Al-Wazni and his family, as well as the family of the activist, Fahem Al-Taie, who died after being assassinated by an unknown force and a number of activists’ families. All were wounded in the protests, after most human rights stakeholders, including the Impunity Organization, organized a number of campaigns on social media to mobilize public opinion and encourage them to join this rally, which later turned into a protest, the protesters made a statement delivered by the family of the activist Ihab Al- Wazani, on behalf of the participants, in front of the local media. The new deputies and its members enact special legislation that prevents impunity and affirm the continuation of the right to peaceful protest against some of the authorities’ measures he described. The statement is arbitrary, while most of the families demanded to lift the media misinformation about the issues and rights of their children who were assassinated and to provide full protection for their homes and families as a result of most of them being subjected to harassment and security threats from time to time. It is affiliated with influential parties in
the city, she said. The statement also called for stopping and limiting the spread of uncontrolled weapons through deterrent and urgent government measures. It is noteworthy that this march is the third of its kind this year, organized by activists to demand legislation to end impunity.
Families of the victims protested, demanding an investigation into the assassinations
On 23\ November\2021, a demonstration organized by dozens of volunteering lecturers (who teach in schools for free, because they are not included in official contracts) in front of the local administration building in Karbala, where lecturers confirmed that the numbers that were handed over to the Ministry of Education, amounting to 5 thousand lecturers, are real numbers and not asit was announced that they were exaggerated and fictitious numbers. As a result, the directorate, in cooperation with some official authorities, stopped the process of employing them as permanent public lecturers based on Government Decision No. 315, while the teachers syndicate confirmed that the need for the educational sector may exceed these numbers in the first official response to the demonstrations in which nearly 50 people took part in front of the local government building, which includes the governorate office. One day after another demonstration organized in front of the Education Directorate building, in which the demonstrators raised the demands, which is to transfer them to the permanent employment of the Ministry of Education. close to the demonstrators to evacuate the place, considering that the demonstration was organized in front of and around a main street and a sector that connects 4 streets in order to facilitate the passage of vehicles The traffic crisis was resolved, and the organizers were asked about the approvals for the demonstration, and the official side did not witness the presence of the official authorities and the receipt of the demands, and the attendance was limited to only. The local media that followed the course of the demonstration, which started early at approximately eight thirty in the morning and ended at eleven o'clock Karbala time.
Dozens of volunteering lecturers demanding to be employed in public sector
On 22\ November, more than 700 lecturers from the two tranches, Lecturers 2020 and 2019, organized a demonstration in front of the Missan Education Building to demand their transfer to ministerial contracts in accordance with Resolution 315. This is because they were contracted to Resolution 310 and stipulates that their salaries should not exceed 350 000 ID and not be less than 250 000 ID. The lecturers claim that they received a salary of only 237000 ID for each month, and there is an amount they received retroactively for the months prior to their studies, and the amount was 1030000 ID. The demonstration witnessed the presence of the security forces to protect the Missan Education Building, as well as the demonstrators. While the teachers’ union issued a statement in solidarity with the demands of the lecturers, and delivered the statement during the demonstration, the lecturers’ coordinator made a statement threatening to strike and open sit-in if they were not transferred within Resolution 315, adding the years they worked as volunteer lecturers to be added to serve them. The media coverage was Al- Mirbad channel, Dijla channel, and the fourth channel, in addition to Al-Janoubia channel, Al-Iraqiya channel, agencies and newspapers. The demonstration ended at one capacity with the withdrawal of demonstrators without Saddam. On the other hand, the coordinator of the lecturers and through the communication platforms directed the lecturers not to demonstrate again because there are promises to transfer them and meet their demands.
Missan Lecturers’ protest to demand their transfer to ministerial contracts
On 16\ November\2021, a number of citizens (approximately 60 citizens) gathered in front of the Directorate of Roads and Bridges in Wasit Governorate, which is affiliated with the Iraqi Ministry of Construction and Housing, for a period of three hours, after they mobilized for this demonstration through social networking sites, Facebook, during which they closed the door of the directorate and put up a sign that wrote It (we hold the Wasit Roads and Bridges Directorate responsible for not completing the Baghdad-Kut road, and the department will be closed for today).
This demonstration caused the closure of the road linking July 14 Square and the University Square (the Roads and Bridges Directorate is located in the middle of the street), which caused a huge traffic jam that ended after the security forces intervened to open the road and implement the demonstrators’ demand to put an iron lock on the directorate’s door. It seems that there is great congestion among the citizens
From not setting a clear timetable for the completion of this road, which is still a major cause of fatal traffic accidents that claimed the lives of many in a very short period. Satellite channels that visited the assembly were Al-Furat satellite channel, Hana Wasit news agency and Gilgamesh Press. No decision- maker in this regard visited the assembly, since the head of the department, Dhurgham Al-Awadi, lives in the district of Zubaidiyeh \ Wasit governorate, which is 100 km from his workplace in the governorate center. On the following day, an expanded meeting of the governorate office took place with the Directorate of Roads and Bridges and Hammurabi Company, the main outlet for the Kut-Baghdad road, to make new promises to the demonstrators regarding the timetable and accelerating the pace of work. As can be seen in the video link below:
A protest by citizens in front of the Roads and Bridges Directorate building in Wasit
On 22\ November, a peaceful demonstration, which included contractor lecturers and administrators was launched, as their number was (500-600) demonstrators to demand their inclusion in Resolution 315 of 2019 issued by the Iraqi Council of Ministers, which contains a new salary scale for contracts and daily wages, after they were contracted as part of Resolution 130, which was considered an unfair decision against them. The demonstration started in front of the Wasit Governorate Office on the Governorate Street to reach Al-Hoora Street, specifically in front of the General Directorate of Education in Wasit, where the demonstrators closed the directorate’s doors and hung a sign that read (Wasit Directorate of Education is closed until the demands of the lecturers and administrators are met) and the time for the end of the demonstration has not been determined, as it is continuing so far, and demonstrations have been launched in the directorates of education in the districts and sub-districts of Wasit governorate. Among them are current and former MPs and the People's Combat Forces were present in large numbers in the area, in preparation for escalation or conflict situations. And for violence by the demonstrators, the gathering was documented by several media outlets, most notably Al-Iraqiya, the Euphrates, the Tigris, Huna Baghdad, Al-Ahed and Al-Sharqiya News satellite channels, and activists on social media circulated it with the hashtag (#Activate_Decision_315_Our Demand).
A peaceful demonstration that included contractor lecturers and administrators demanding their inclusion in Resolution 315
On 18\ November\2021, a number of protesting citizens (100 citizens) gathered peacefully in front of the Water Resources Division building in Dabouni (affiliated to the Ministry of Water Resources \ General Authority for the Operation of Irrigation and Drainage Projects \ Water Resources Directorate in Wasit) for a period of three hours and a quarter of protesters against the policy of the ministry to cut off water from agricultural lands by force and their implementation of a campaign of arrests against farmers and peasants. Where this demonstration was announced two days ago by the so-called Coordinating Body for Demonstrations in the North Wasit region, the gathering of the families of the arrested farmers came to demand the dropping of malicious cases against their children and their release. The demonstrators also the reopen of water on agricultural lands and stop the policy of Marashnah and compared it to the scorched-earth policy followed by the former Iraqi regime by cutting off water from agricultural lands. The media monitored this gathering, and activists circulated it on social media. A government delegation visited the gathering, represented by the Director of Water Resources in Wasit Governorate, the Deputy Police Commander of Wasit, the director of Al-Dabouni district, and the Director of the Water Resources Division in Al-Dabouni district, to listen to the demands of the demonstrators, which were summarized in two main points. :
1- Re-opening water on agricultural lands and abolishing the Marashnah system completely
2- Dropping the 145 cases filed against farmers and peasants
The gathering ended at quarter past eleven, after the government delegation left the gathering
A protest by citizens against the policy of the Marashna system
On23\ November\2021, hundreds of students of the Technical Institute in Darbandikhan and Halabja demonstrated for two days in front of the Technical Institute building without obtaining prior approvals from the authorities concerned with organizing the demonstrations in solidarity with the Sulaymaniyah demonstrators and other places. The demonstrators verbally demanded the government to re-disburse the monthly financial stipends to students cut since 2014.
On the other hand, dozens of students from Kalar university and institutes gathered in front of the university building for the fourth day in a row and without prior official permission to demonstrate. The gathering began at nine thirty in the morning in front of the university building in the first day. They stressed the demand for the monthly student financial grants, and they raised banners and slogans demanding their rights due to the bad economic conditions and their failure to bear the costs of the study. The main road between Kalar and Sulaymaniyah was cut off in front of cars for several hours, which led to traffic crisis and the disruption of traffic between cities and later the road was opened by the Civil Activities Police and the security forces.
A group of farmers demonstrated to demand their rights
On 24\November\2021, dozens of students from Zakho University marched in front of the university buildings without any prior legal permission to demonstrate. The protests began after many university students in Kurdistan poured on the streets to demand better conditions of their university hostels and the reintroduction of their monthly benefits system by the Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research. The main road in front of the university was blocked by the demonstrators. There was no presence of any government officials to listen to their demands.
On 23\November\2021, dozens of Koya University students gathered in front of the university building for four days in a row and without prior notice and official permission from the authorities. The gathering began in front of the university building and ended at one o’clock in the afternoon. And because of the corruption that exists in the university administration, the basic services in the dormitories for students, especially in the winter season, are poor, such as a lack of fuel and electricity. They raised banners and slogans demanding their rights. The demonstrators also headed towards Hebat Sultan Street inside Koya District. The main road was cut off in front of pedestrians and cars. The demonstrators also closed the university and prevented students from entering it. The Presidency of Koya University has also expressed their solidarity with the legitimate rights of students with an official statement and a notification was made. Students by the Presidency of Koya University with a commitment to improve the living situation in the internal departments of the university and provide them with fuel and electricity. A few media outlets attended. Note that there was a presence of the civil activities police and security forces.
The reasons for the demonstrations \ the demands of the demonstrators
The security authorities behavior towards the gatherings